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From this perspective, the Aurignacian is interpreted as the culture that would realize the systematization of numerous innovations and become the instrument of victory of Modern Humans over Neandertal populations. In this paper, I review current definitions of the early stages of the European Aurignacian and attempt to reformulate them in evolutionary terms.

I hypothesize that one of the driving forces of the technological evolution of human groups between 45, and 30, bp could have been the search for technical solutions for the arming of projectiles. A greater temporal depth and a relative arrhythmia in the development of the constituent elements of the Upper Paleolithic are thus emphasized. My kind thanks go first to Michael Shott for his valuable comments on the original draft of this article.

I am also grateful to the five anonymous reviewers for their critical reading of the manuscript and their contributions to improving its clarity.

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Last but not least, Magen O'Farrell translated the text into English and made valuable comments on its content. Skip to Main Content.

Pigments, engravings, jewellery

Search in: This Journal Anywhere. Advanced search. While these two groups of slot pits are difficult to date, similar features from Champagne-Ardenne suggest that they are Neolithic, or Bronze Age in date. The seven features have narrow V or Y shaped sections and deep, stratified fills. Once again, the fills can be divided into two or three parts. Early Neolithic artefacts were found in five pits. Finds include pottery sherds, wild and domestic fauna, with cervid bones in anatomical connection in one pit, as well as flint artefacts and seeds.

One slot pit, located near a longhouse, had been reused as a refuse pit. Two radiocarbon dates were obtained. The cervid bones date to the Early Neolithic, so they are contemporary with the Linear Pottery settlement on the site. Cereal seeds from another slot pit in the group date to the Middle Neolithic. These results imply that the slot pits were dug during the Early Neolithic occupation, and remained partially open during the Middle Neolithic.

At this site, the hunting hypothesis can be rejected, not only because of the danger of people and domestic animals from the settlement falling into the pits, but also because of the low probability of wild animals approaching this close to the village. The layout of the slot pits on the northern edge of the village, forming an arc of a circle, could be interpreted as an unusual defensive system. This discovery echoes others sites in the Rhineland and Belgium, where similar pits have been found in Linear Pottery settlements. Comparison of the three sites shows similarity in pit morphology, but flagrant differences in spatial organisation.

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These three examples show that the debate on the function of slot pits function is still open, and that their function may well have varied over time? The short-sword hoard of La Rouviere, Chusclan, in the Rhone valley region of Gard, was discovered accidentally during agricultural work in The objects were discovered during the excavation of a spoil heap. Surveys conducted later in the field failed to specify the conditions of deposit.

Traces on the blades indicate, with very high probability, that the three swords were originally set in a top-to-tail position. They were certainly tied up together or contained in a perishable bag. The nature and form of the hoard is a strong argument in favour of an interpretation unrelated to any funeral activity. The three short swords belong to three different morphological types. However, the best comparison is with a sword assembled by four rivets from Meseta in the north of Spain La Loma, Villaviudas. The second sword is a more continental type, resembling patterns observed on sword and halberd blades in Burgundy and northern France Sens, Montreuil-sur-Mer , Germany Cologne museum , and the Ried hoard Austrian Tyrol dated to the late Early Bronze Age.

The third blade is the only specimen still bearing an incomplete bronze metal haft.

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It belongs to the Rhone type according to S. Swenzer's definition. These weapons have a southern distribution, in south-eastern France and northern Italy, probably during the late Bronze A2 period. Several comparisons found in the Valais region Switzerland and peninsular Italy and the Po plain indicate it was probably manufactured under Italic influence. Finally, the three short swords from the La Rouviere hoard are typologically dated to the late Early Bronze Age. Eleven samples were collected for metal analysis, three from blade 1 blade and rivet , three from blade 2 blade and rivet and five from sword 3 haft, blade and rivet.

The blades are made from tin-free arsenical copper, a very specific composition. The uniqueness suggested by the elemental composition is not confirmed by the lead isotope analyses, which show the use of various unidentified sources of copper. The use of such copper-arsenic metal is well-documented in the south of the Iberian Peninsula, and more broadly on the Atlantic coast and in the British Isles. To identify the provenance of the metal, the method using the lead isotopic composition works by eliminating incompatible sources.

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In the present case, this method does not allow us to exclude the Iberian Peninsula and the British Isles as sources for the copper of the three blades from Chusclan, or to suggest other univocal origins of the metal. This wide geographical distribution certainly reflects the hierarchical superiority of such hoards and of the individuals who manipulated their contents, according to H.

Vandkilde's hypothesis, developed on the basis of Nordic data. Finally, the question remains as to whether or not circulation networks of multispecific and monospecific hoards overlapped. These thoughts are presented here in their preliminary state and concern different fieldworks, including excavations Cuciurpula, Puzzonu and Nuciaresa settlements , surveys and systematic architectural layouts.

We shall especially present the information collected during the excavations of dwellings 6, 1 and 3 of this important village, which provides an exhaustive view of a complete chronology between the 12th and 6th centuries BC, and thus allows the spatial and functional evolution of the typical Southern Corsican protohistoric houses to be considered in a diachronic manner. We shall then examine the means of access related to the daily use of these domestic spaces through analysis of the vestiges of the pathways linking them together, which have recently been the topic of an independent study.

This consisted in the compilation of a catalogue and the excavation of these specific constructions, whose aspect clearly indicates their function, linked to the circulation of individuals, naturally difficult at Cuciurpula because of the inclination grade and rock clusters. These structures include ramps, stairs, passageways and even footbridges, etc. The possibility of a modern chronology for these paths has to be raised because of the presence of miners on the site over several centuries. Nevertheless, many aspects indicate that construction took place during the transition between the Bronze and Iron Ages, around the 9th century.

It could have linked the two important protohistoric fortified settlements of Filitosa and Castellucciu-Calzola. We shall conclude with a broader study, aimed at specifying the layout of the protohistoric roads, for which some clues, taken from toponymy and settlement pattern studies, enable us to observe a persistent local usage lasting up to the medieval and sub-present periods.

Analysis of the protohistoric settlement distribution model in Alta Rocca, almost superposable on the medieval land occupation pattern, may relate to factors imposed by the environment in order to avoid major obstacles, calling on effort-efficiency optimization. Ainsi, Pike et al.

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Il est donc fort regrettable que l'article de Pike et al. Goslar et al. Labonne et al. Given the difficulties of dating cave art other than drawings created with charcoal, which can be directly dated by 14C , indirect dating methods have been sought. In these cases, the age of calcite formation is assumed to provide a minimum age terminus ante quem for the underlying paintings or engravings or a maximum age terminus post quem when it is the support that is dated. An initial difficulty is that thorium may be present in the calcite from the beginning detritic thorium , making age corrections necessary.

Another difficulty is that in the humid conditions prevalent in caves, the walls may have been subject to runoff over time. In this case, thin calcite layers covering paintings or engravings may have been altered, with possible chemical exchange between the water and the calcite. The most probable effect of this "open system" behavior is the leaching of uranium, leading to an overestimation of the age of the calcite.

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For this reason, it is important to know the concentrations of uranium in each calcitic sample, as this makes it possible to detect local anomalies that have led to a substantial loss of this element. However as detailed analytical data uranium content have not been published one cannot appreciate the reliability of the ages obtained. Then, in the absence of confirmation by an independent dating method, it is premature to base an archaeological reasoning on these dates. This article emphasizes the necessity of carrying out several analyses on the same sample, and when possible on several layers from its thickness.

Several recent examples will illustrate this necessity. Finally, it has to be mentioned that when the deposits underlying paintings or engravings are studied, the data obtained could be distant in time from the creative act. In fact, the growth of calcite is controlled by environmental factors and is favored during temperate and humid periods. Thus, a large number of calcitic layers overlying paintings could have been deposited during the Holocene. They could also have grown during a brief warming of the last glacial period, or represent a mean age between several growing periods.

Nevertheless, these chronological data could bring relevant information, once their validity has been verified. At present, only a relatively small area about 7m2 of this level has been excavated, but the lithic sequence is characteristic of the Middle Solutrean. Five fragments of laurel-leaf points, apparently broken during manufacture, represent four items, with thin flakes and spalls associated with their production.